…that the public derives from their interaction with a brand. Shaping these impressions is a mixed bag of brand contacts including:
- Planned Messages, such as advertising and brochures, or any communication controlled by management;
- Product Messages, such as the design of the physical product or physical settings;
- Service Messages, which constitute any contact the client or customer has with the service process; and,
- Unplanned Messages, including word-of-mouth, social media, articles, and publicity.
According to Teemu Moilanen and Seppo Rainisto, authors of “How to Brand Nations, Cities and Destinations,” © 2009, word-of-mouth is probably the most important source of information in forging a positive and lasting brand relationship.